Knee, Ankle, and Foot

The decrease extremity has a widespread effect to your capability to transport within your world. a chain of shifting links(hip, knee and ankle joints) work cooperatively in dynamic and static states. This ability presents us the possibility to proficiently flow, perform and pursue our passion in life. An knowledge of these articulations, muscle groups, joints and their biomechanics have to assist in maintaining our quest to stay wholesome and lively!

specialised sensory receptors in the body (muscles, tendons ligaments and joints) have a proprioceptive feature, meaningthey relay positional or spatial cognizance for your mind on the way to hold upright balance. that is completed via a constant flow of facts flowing from our frame into our spine and up into our mind. Neuropathways, or somatic sensory circuits, create a sense of self as we move our body elements through space and time.


The knee joint is the most important, most complicated joint within the body designed for balance. it is a changed”hinge” joint that flexes and extends with little or no rotation or twisting. balance is dependent on a complex communityof thick, sturdy ligaments outside and inside the joint. Mobility have to exist above and below the knee joint within the hip and ankle joint. If the hips are tight and stiff, the knee joint is liable to immoderate motion which can create wear and tear. The patella (also called the knee cap) is the most important “sesamoid” bone within the frame and glides among the 2spherical surfaces on the femur bone with knee flexion/extension. On top of the tibia bone sits shock-absorbing pads, called the menisci, which assist to deepen the knee joint floor place in a determine-eight-like pattern. This meniscus sample stocks connections with the cruciate ligaments and assists in guiding the small amount of rotation inside the knee.

The foot and ankle are key focal factors of help for total frame weight forces. every day we endure focused forces of stressvia the ankle, which acts as a surprise absorber and distributes the ones forces into the foot. The ankle joint includesprimary hinge-kind joints, the talocrural and subtalar joints. whilst upright and in gravity, those joints are continuouslyadapting to the motels important to face, walk, run or bounce. The fibula and tibia bones from above, and the talus bone from beneath, form the talocrural joint, which is a hinge joint. The talus and calcaneus make up the subtalar joint. thosecomplicated moves within the human body require complicated and subtle relationships governed throughneuromuscular reflexes, furnished by means of our nerves, spinal wire, and mind.


Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): A superficial, lengthy and flat ligament among the medial epicondyle of the femur and the tibia (4 – 7 cm); stabilizes the inside of the knee joint; resists excessive outside rotation and abduction.

Medial Capsular Ligament (MCL): Deep, thick, and attaches to the medial meniscus; stocks fibers of the joint pill; resists inward or valgus stress and medial rotation; stabilizes anterior-posterior motion assisting the anterior cruciate ligament.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): A strong twine-like ligament attaching from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the topor advanced head of the fibula; does now not connect to the meniscus; resists outward or outside rotation of the femur at the tibia; not injured as much because the MCL because of its lack of meniscal attachment.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL): A robust intra-articular ligament that runs front-to-back (anterior to posterior); fibers are taut with directly leg; prevents the femur from moving backwards or posteriorly on the tibia.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL): An intra-articular ligament that attaches returned-to-front (posterior to anterior); prevents forward movement of the tibia relative to the femur and internal rotation of the tibia

Patellar Ligament: common tendon of quadriceps muscle inserts on tibial tuberosity

muscular tissues

Quadriceps: the largest muscular tissues within the body: Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius. Its movement is extension of the knee, flexion of hip (Rectus Femoris most effective), and monitoring of Patella (Vastus Lateralis and Medialis)

Sartorius: A flexor and outside rotator of hip joint and flexor of knee joint, and the longest muscle inside the frame

Hamstrings: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus & Biceps Femoris. Its movement is flexion of the knee, extension of hip, deceleration of leg, stability capabilities with knee extension

Popliteus: Small muscle that flexes the tibia and rotates it medially

Iliotibial (IT) Band: Tendinous extension of the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus Gastrocnemius. the 2 heads (lateral and medial) insert above knee; common tendon (Achilles) insets at the calcaneus; affects knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion.

range of motion

status with each feet on the floor (Closed Kinetic Chain) with a straight or “locked knee” creates zero tiers of flexion because of ligaments, meniscus and joint pill being tight and at maximum tension. because the knee moves into flexion, the knee “unlocks” and the femoral head and lateral condyle externally rotate slightly and the medial condyle glides or translates in the first 15-20 levels. Rotational movement is best among forty five-90 of knee flexion. Knee flexion (one hundred twenty-a hundred and fifty ranges) and extension or hyperextension (5-10 tiers).


Medial Collateral or “Deltoid” Ligament: A thick, robust triangular ligament at the medial side of ankle; from the medial malleolus above, it enthusiasts out and inserts on three ankle bones (navicular, calcaneus, talus)

Lateral collateral ligament: three distinct ligaments (calcaneofibular, anterior/ posterior talofibular) and extensivelyweaker than its medial counterpart; liable to ankle “inversion” sprains

muscle groups

Anterior Leg: Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Digitorium Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus (Anterior Shin Splints)

Posterior Leg: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Flexor Hallucis Longus, (Posterior Shin Splints), Plantaris, Triceps Surae, Gastrocnemius (superficial and soleus/deep)

Lateral Leg: Peroneal Tertius, Peroneal Longus, Peroneal Brevis

Foot (Dorsal): Extensor Digitorum Brevis, Extensor Hallucis Brevis, Interossei

Foot (Plantar): Abductor Hallucis, Abductor Digiti Minimi, Flexor Digitorum Brevis, Quadratus Plantae, Lumbricles, Flexor Hallucis Brevis, Adductor Hallucis, Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis, Interossei

variety of motion

Talocrural Joint: Dorsiflexion (20-30 stages); Plantarflexion (forty-50 degrees)

Subtalar Joint: Supination or Inversion (20 stages); Pronation or Eversion (10 ranges)

Ankle & Foot Arches

The 3 arches in the foot create guide with a suspension-like potential. The talus bone is taken into consideration the “keystone” of support within the arch of the foot. It gives us records for our stability and posture. It allows us to movewith precision and energy while activities call for it. Strengthening the arches ought to manifest through the years and with understanding of proper biomechanics. The three arches of the foot are: Medial Longitudinal Arch, Lateral Longitudinal Arch, Transverse Arch.

Squat take a look at

carry out a squat five-6 times with top, upright posture (looking instantly ahead, ft hip-width and parallel, the use of a postural grid inside the history for reference. you may also take a video or picture (the front and lateral perspectives) to check for the structural dysfunctions that can occur below.

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